Monday Notes

Day one done!! Here is what I gathered:

Bacteria to learn:
Toxic Shock Syndrome

See “Bacteria Vocab” tab for scientific name/spellings.

Lecture Notes : Introduction to Microbiology

The study of living things that are too small to be seen w/ the naked eye.

Prokaryotes : Organisms that have prokaryotic cells. (Cells w/o a true nucleus or organelles)

  • Archaea: Extremophiles. Meaning they live in extreme environments such as acidic, salty or high temperatures. Generally not found to be harmful to humans.
  • Bacteria:Non-extermophiles.

Eukaryotes:Organisms that have eukaryotic cells. (Cells w/ a true nucleus and organelles.)

  • Fungi: Unicellular or multicellular; opportunisitic pathogens. They reproduce through asexual and sexual spores.
  • Protozoa: Direct translation is “first animals.” (though not animals) They are unicellular and most have motility.
  • Algae: Unicellular or colonial. Colonial meaning they group together, but are always unicellular. Antotrophs. (self-feeder through photosynthesis)
  • Multicellular parasites: example would be helminths (worms)
  • Vectors:  Animal (such as an insect) that can carry pathogens from one host to another.

Monday Lab Notes: Lab 1 & 2A

Lab Safety; Handwashing & Microscopes

  • In case of emergency, we are to leave the building together as a class to through the double doors to the left. We must meet together so Brahce can take roll.
  • If you get something in your eyes, you are to flush them in the back of the room for a full 15 minutes. It is best to let Brahce KNOW so she can help.
  • There is a fire hydrant, fire blanket and first aid kit in the front of the room.
  • To dispose of broken glass there is a SPECIFIED trash bin in the back of the room. Is your broken glass contaminated? Ask Brahce if it is OK to through away in the broken glass trash bin.
  • Microbe spill? Inform people around you and instructor. Cover with disinfectant. Wipe with paper towels, dispose properly and wash hands!

Where do we put things when we are done?

Top Shelf: Non-contaminated glassware.

Middle Shelf: CONTAMINATED items such as: Breakers, flasks, slides, test tubes. Test tubes need the tape removed and belong in the “50 tube rack.” Slides go in the container designated for slides.

Bottom Shelf: All materials that can be through away and will be going in the autoclave (a super duper medical grade “dishwasher”) These items will be Petri dishes, plastic pipettes, paper, other plastic items that will be disposed of.

Lab Materials & Supplies

Trays: Found by your belly… matches, metal tube holder, clothes pin for stained slides, 2 scrape sticks and ruler.

Drawer: Lens paper, slide holder, test tube holder.

  • Extra test tube racks can be found in back of classroom.
  • Sterile growth media is found in the 2 side refrigerators on right side of room. (Generally will be needing Nutrient Agar from here)
  • Stains and reagents are found on black shelf in front of room.
  • Microscopes: Cubbies.
  • Don’t use fridges on left.
  • We will be using grey incubator on the right in back of room. It is at 37 degrees C (98.6 degrees F) Place your samples UPSIDE DOWN.

Your samples can be found in the wood box with our class name on it the next day if no longer in incubator.


Normal microbiota vs. transient microbiota

Normal Microbiota: Microbes that are found on the outside and inside of the human body on a permanent basis. Help CROWD out the transient microbiota. Are useful to the bodies systems such as digestion and immune system.

Transient Microbiota: Temporary microbes acquired from environment.

  • We begin collecting our normal microbiota from the time of birth in the birth canal and from breast feeding

“Handwashing is the single most important procedure for preventing noscomial ( institutionally acquired) infections”

– Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

“Ignaz Semmelweis was a physician on the obstetric ward…[in 1847 he] hypothesized that medical students carried ‘cadaver particles’ from their autopsy studies into the delivery rooms, and that these ‘particles’ resulted in puerperal fever…Semmelweis began requiring medical students to wash their hands with chlorinated lime water.”

Semmelweis ended up getting the shaft from the hospital due to his “barbaric ways” and returned to his home country Hungary, where he went a little mad, was admitted to a mental facility and then IRONICALLY died from an infection of streptococcus which causes PUERPERAL FEVER! He died from the disease he went crazy fighting against.

2A Microscope: Compound Light Microscope

Compound: 2 sets of lenses being used to magnify the specimen.

Objective Lens: Magnifies object/specimen.

Objective Lens Name                            Maginification    Total Mag.

    1. Scanning Objective Lens                   4x             40x
    2. Low Power Objective Lens               10x           100x
    3. High Power Objective Lens              45x          450x
    4. Oil Immersion Objective Lens         100x       1000x

Ocular Lens: Lenses you look through. Magnifies x10


Magnification: Makes specimen appear larger.

Resolution: Clarity, sharpness of the image.

Parfocal: When the specimen is in focus using one objective lens, it is in focus in all objective lenses.

Field of View: Circle of light you see when viewing a specimen.


  1. Store w/ cord between ocular lenses & underneath the stage control knobs.
  2. Scanning objective lens in place.
  3. Turn light/power off.
  4. No oil on oil immersion lens.
  5. No slides left on microscope.

This image different than your microscope but should give a general idea of where things are.

Light power/intensity dial: Turns light on, controls light brightness

Substage condenser: Focuses light gathered onto specimen. 

Iris Diagram: Widens or narrows the diameter of light coming in. (Helps w/ clarity)

Mechanical stage & stage clips: Supports slide & holds in place.

Mechanical stage & control knobs: Moves stage clips forward/back & left/right. 

Substage condenser control knob: Moves condenser closer or farther from stage.

Revolving Nosepiece: Moving part for changing objective lenses. 

Coarse Focus Knob:Moves objective lens either closer or farther from stage. (Controls working distance)

Fine Focus Knob: Makes minor movements similar to coarse focus knob.

Ocular lens adjustment dial: Moves ocular lenses closer or farther apart from one another.

Steps for Viewing Specimen:

  1. Put scanning object lens in place
  2. Place slide between clips on stage
  3. Use mechanical stage control knobs to move specimen directly under scanning objective lens
  4. Use coarse focus knob to bring specimen into focus
  5. Be sure specimen is in CENTER of field of view.
  6. Move low power objective lens into place.
  7. Use fine focus to bring specimen into focus.

Hope this helps! See you tomorrow


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