Acellular – w/o cells. Viruses, Viroids & Prions, oh my!
Viruses: Made of nucleic acid & a protein coat; obligate intracellular parasites.
Viroids: Infectious RNA that cause plant diseases.
Prions: Self-replicating, infectious proteins.
Ex. Encephalopathies – Causes holes in brain. (Mad Cow Disease)
General Characteristics of Living Things
- All living things have structure/organization based on cells. (Cells being the smallest unit of life)
- Reproduction – Passing DNA (sexual or asexual)
- Ability to convert energy from one form to the other (Metabolize)
- Respond to environmental stimuli
- Evolutionary adaption
- Regulate internal/intracellular conditions
Various Roles of Microbes (Many Beneficial)
- Antibiotics – Chemicals produced by living things that kill other living things.
- Role in immunity
- Bioremediation – Ex: Bacteria can be used to clean up oil spills
- Pathogens (root path: disease; gen: generate)
- Nutrient Recycling (Ecological Role)
Overview of Taxonomy & Scientific Nomenclature
Taxonomy: The science of classifying & naming organisms.
Heirarchy: Most general category to the most specific
“Dumb kids playing chase on freeway go splat”
- Domain – Bacteria, Archaea or Eukarya
- Genus – Usually a noun
- Species – Usually an adjective
Carolus Linnaeus (1758)
- Developed binomial nomenclature system
The Scientific Process
- Question.. What? How?
- Test or experiment including control groups
- Observations of experimental data
- Accept/Reject hypothesis
- Theory or Law or Modify/change hypothesis
Lab 2B: Microscopic Measurement
Goal: Determine the distance between each line on the ocular micrometer using a known metric standard (stage micrometer)
Ocular Micrometer: Disc of glass in one of the ocular lenses w/ equally spaced lines etched onto the surface.
Stage Micrometer: Glass slide w/ both metric & english rulers etched onto surface (the known standard)
Metric System Review:
- Meter- standard unit of length measurement
- We will be measuring in µm (microbes)