Tuesday Notes

Acellular – w/o cells. Viruses, Viroids & Prions, oh my!

Living? Kinda…

Viruses: Made of nucleic acid & a protein coat; obligate intracellular parasites. 

Viroids: Infectious RNA that cause plant diseases. 

Prions: Self-replicating, infectious proteins.

Ex. Encephalopathies – Causes holes in brain. (Mad Cow Disease)

General Characteristics of Living Things

  • All living things have structure/organization based on cells. (Cells being the smallest unit of life)
  • Reproduction – Passing DNA (sexual or asexual)
  • Ability to convert energy from one form to the other (Metabolize)
  • Respond to environmental stimuli
  • Evolutionary adaption
  • Regulate internal/intracellular conditions
  • Grow

Various Roles of Microbes (Many Beneficial)

  • Fermentation
  • Antibiotics – Chemicals produced by living things that kill other living things.
  • Role in immunity
  • Bioremediation – Ex: Bacteria can be used to clean up oil spills
  • Pathogens (root path: disease; gen: generate)
  • Nutrient Recycling (Ecological Role)

Overview of Taxonomy & Scientific Nomenclature

Taxonomy: The science of classifying & naming organisms.

Heirarchy: Most general category to the most specific

“Dumb kids playing chase on freeway go splat”

  1. Domain – Bacteria, Archaea or Eukarya
  2. Kingdom
  3. Phylum
  4. Class
  5. Order
  6. Family
  7. Genus – Usually a noun
  8. Species – Usually an adjective

Carolus Linnaeus (1758)

  • Developed binomial nomenclature system

The Scientific Process

  1. Observation
  2. Question.. What? How?
  3. Hypothesis
  4. Test or experiment including control groups
  5. Observations of experimental data
  6. Accept/Reject hypothesis
  7. Theory or Law or Modify/change hypothesis

Lab 2B: Microscopic Measurement

Goal: Determine the distance between each line on the ocular micrometer using a known metric standard (stage micrometer)

Ocular Micrometer: Disc of glass in one of the ocular lenses w/ equally spaced lines etched onto the surface.


Stage Micrometer: Glass slide w/ both metric & english rulers etched onto surface (the known standard)

Metric System Review:

  • Meter- standard unit of length measurement
  • We will be measuring in µm (microbes)


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