Tuesday Notes

Eukaryotic Cells…

Eukaryotic cells w/ walls:

  • plants (cellulose)
  • algae
  • fungi (chiten)

Membranous Organelles of Eukaryotic cells:

Nuclear envelope – Has 2 membranes w/ pores for communication

Cytoplasmic membrane- composed of phospholipid bilayer

Endoplasmic Reticulum – Rough & Smooth

  • Rough – function is to synthesize (make) proteins & enclose them in vesicles to send out
  • Smooth – makes lipids that help repair cells, also to be sent out in vesicles

Golgi Body – “shipping center” where proteins & lipids get modiified & sent to other locations

  • Cis – “front” location where vesicles are recieved
  • Trans – “back” where vesicles are secreted by the cell enclosed in another membrane.

Mitochandria – respiration …makes ATP (I may have missed some stuff here)

  • Has outer membrane
  • has an inner membrane that is folded into structures called cristae
  • 70s ribosomes, 1 circular chromosome, divides by binary fission

Chloroplasts – Found in plant cells and algae cells (photosynthetic organisms) as the dark green color

  • thylakoid membranes stacked into grana (dense areas)
  • thylakoid contain photosynthetic pigments
  • 70s ribosomes, 1 circular chromosome, divides by binary fission

Free ribosomes – make (synthesize) proteins that will remain in the cell


Membranous Sacs:

  1. Vesicles
  2. lysosomes (in animal cells) – digest cell waste
  3. vacuoles (ex. central part of plant) – stores water in plant cells or a contractile vacuole which maintains the water level coming in by pushing out excess  preventing the cell from bursting do to hyper or hypotonic conditions.
  4. peroxisomes – contain enzymes that degrade metabolic wastes such as H & O


Eukaryote External Structures: (Not all eukaryotic structures have these structures)

Glycocalyx Functions: (Not part of cells that have a cell wall)

  1. Helps evade the immune system
  2. transmit messages (think biofilms)
  3. helps to adhere to eachother &/or inanimate objects. 

Cytoplasmic membranes –

  1. Some contain steroid lipids such as cholesterol
  2. Most have sugars attached to cell surface : glycolipids (attach to head of phospholipid) or glycoproteins (attach to protein channels) – One function of glycolipids and glycoproteins is self-recognition

Flagella – 

  • Surrounded by cytoplasmic membrane
  • composed of microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement (microtubules contain protein called tubulin)
  • moves in an undulating (wave-like) fashion

Cilia – Short “hair-like” projections, used for motility. Also have 9+2 arrangement of the microtubules (move like oars)

(Prokaryotes do not have cillia)


Vesicular Transport

Exocytosis – secretion of material from inside to outside of eukaryotic cells in a vesicule

Endocytosis –  bringing in material from outside to inside the cell in a vesicle.

  • Phagocytosis – “to eat” (larger of dry materials)
  • Pinocytosis – “to drink” (liquids)

Nonmembranous Organelles

Cytoskeleton – composed of various sizes/shapes of protein filaments /tubules for movement & structure

Ribosomes – composed of polypeptides + rRNA & make protein

Centrosomes – Area near nucleus involved in forming the mitotic spindle during mitosis.

Centrioles – found in animal cells withing the centrosome area; bundles of microtubules that are perpendicular to one another.


Microbial Growth


  • Plants, algae, cyanobacteria use water to reduce carbon dioxide producing oxygen as a biproduct
  • Green sulfur bacteria & purple nonsulfur bacteria, some archaea


  • Hydrogen, sulfur, & nitrifying bacteria, some archae


  • Green nonsulfur bacteria & purple nonsulfur bacteria, some archae


  • aerobic respiration, most animals, fungi, protozoa, bacteria & archae

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