Week 2

This week we are finishing up the Biochemistry lecture & covering Cells.

Monday – Quiz 2

Tuesday – Pure culture from Mix A or B due

Wednesday – Quiz 3

Thursday – Morphological Unknown report due.



8. Define the following terms related to organic molecules: 4 Major Categories of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates; Lipids; Proteins & Nucleic Acid
a. Monomer: is a molecule that may bind chemically to other molecules to form a polyme
b. Polymer: large molecule (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units (monomers). These sub-units are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds
c. Synthesis reaction: two or more chemical species combine to form a more complex product.

A + B → AB
d. Decomposition (breakdown) reaction : separation of a chemical compound into elements or simpler compounds. It is sometimes defined as the exact opposite of a chemical synthesis.

AB → A + B
e. Exchange/transfer reaction: When an element of compound switch places. This can be a single or double replacement 

A + BC → AC + B

9. List the four major groups of organic molecules and know the following information for each
group: Lipids, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acid

a. General function:
Carbs – Provide energy, structure (especially in plants)
Lipids – Provide energy (9cal/g), Structure (cell membranes), some are hormones
Proteins – Motility, Structure, Involved in cell communications, Catalyst for chemical RXNs (enzymes)

Nucleic Acid – Genetic information storage (DNA), Gene expression (RNA), Energy (ATP)

b. General chemical structure/ properties:

Nucleic Acid – C, H, O, P   1 phosphate + 1 five-carbon sugar + 1 nitrogen base
c. Name of monomers or small/simple molecules:
Carbs – Monosaccharides

Proteins – Amino acids

Nucleic Acid – Nucleotides
d. Examples of monomers:
Monosaccharides – fructose, glucose , galactose

e. Types of bonds that are formed between monomers:
Carbs – Glycosidic Bonds
Lipids – (No monomer) Bond between fatty acids + glycerol to form tryglceride is Ester bond
Proteins – Peptide Bonds

Nucleic Acid – Phosphodiester Bonds

f. Name of polymers or large/complex molecules:
Carbs – Polysaccharides

Proteins – Polypeptides

Nucleic Acid – Polynucleotides
g. Examples of polymers
Polysaccharides – Cellulose, Lactose, Maltose

h. Sub-groups (if applicable)

Phospholipids – 1 glycerol + 2 fatty acids + 1 phosphate group + organic functional group

Steriods – 4 fused rings; Include cholesterol

10. Explain the difference between a saturated fatty acid and an unsaturated fatty acid.
Saturated fatty acid – maximum # of Hydrogen attached to each carbon.
Unsaturated (Mono & Poly) – Fewer Hydrogens; double bonds w/ Carbon creating kinks in chain.

11. Define denaturation and explain how a protein can become denatured.

Protein denaturation is the loss of tertiary or quaternary structure, causing the loss of function (3 & 4 in charge of function) Causes: high heat, alcohol, some metals & acids.

 Cells :

1. State the Cell Theory.  Which scientists first proposed this theory (and when)?

  • The idea cells are the basic unit of structure in every living thing. (Theordore Schwann & Jakob Shleiden, 1839)
  • All cells come from preexisting cells (Rudolph Virchow, 1855)

2. Compare & contrast the general features of prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells, including the
information in this table:
Not sure we covered this fully….
 Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells
Cell size range   
Chromosome shape/ arrangement   
Cell wall composition   
Histones?  Yes/ No   
Ribosomes (size)   
Membrane-enclosed organelles?  Yes/ No   
Cell division (mechanism)   
3. Which domains include prokaryotic organisms?  Which domain includes eukaryotic organisms?
Prokaryotic – Archaea, Bacteria  Eukaryotic – Eukarya
5. Describe the structure and function of the glycocalyx (capsule) secreted by prokaryotic cells. – gelatinous material composed of polypeptides &/or polysaccharide in 2 forms : Capsule – organized & firmly attached to cell wall or Slimelayer- loose, less organized, not firmly attached to cell walls.


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