This week we are finishing up the Biochemistry lecture & covering Cells.
Monday – Quiz 2 Tuesday – Pure culture from Mix A or B due Wednesday – Quiz 3 Thursday – Morphological Unknown report due.
QUIZ 3 REVIEW…
8. Define the following terms related to organic molecules: 4 Major Categories of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates; Lipids; Proteins & Nucleic Acid
a. Monomer: is a molecule that may bind chemically to other molecules to form a polyme
b. Polymer: large molecule (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units (monomers). These sub-units are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds
c. Synthesis reaction: two or more chemical species combine to form a more complex product.
A + B → AB
d. Decomposition (breakdown) reaction : separation of a chemical compound into elements or simpler compounds. It is sometimes defined as the exact opposite of a chemical synthesis.
AB → A + B
e. Exchange/transfer reaction: When an element of compound switch places. This can be a single or double replacement
A + BC → AC + B
9. List the four major groups of organic molecules and know the following information for each
group: Lipids, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acid
a. General function:
Carbs – Provide energy, structure (especially in plants)
Lipids – Provide energy (9cal/g), Structure (cell membranes), some are hormones
Proteins – Motility, Structure, Involved in cell communications, Catalyst for chemical RXNs (enzymes)
Nucleic Acid – Genetic information storage (DNA), Gene expression (RNA), Energy (ATP)
b. General chemical structure/ properties:
Nucleic Acid – C, H, O, P 1 phosphate + 1 five-carbon sugar + 1 nitrogen base
c. Name of monomers or small/simple molecules:
Carbs – Monosaccharides
Proteins – Amino acids
Nucleic Acid – Nucleotides
d. Examples of monomers:
Monosaccharides – fructose, glucose , galactose
e. Types of bonds that are formed between monomers:
Carbs – Glycosidic Bonds
Lipids – (No monomer) Bond between fatty acids + glycerol to form tryglceride is Ester bond
Proteins – Peptide Bonds
Nucleic Acid – Phosphodiester Bonds
f. Name of polymers or large/complex molecules:
Carbs – Polysaccharides
Proteins – Polypeptides
Nucleic Acid – Polynucleotides
g. Examples of polymers
Polysaccharides – Cellulose, Lactose, Maltose
h. Sub-groups (if applicable)
Phospholipids – 1 glycerol + 2 fatty acids + 1 phosphate group + organic functional group
Steriods – 4 fused rings; Include cholesterol
10. Explain the difference between a saturated fatty acid and an unsaturated fatty acid.
Saturated fatty acid – maximum # of Hydrogen attached to each carbon.
Unsaturated (Mono & Poly) – Fewer Hydrogens; double bonds w/ Carbon creating kinks in chain.
11. Define denaturation and explain how a protein can become denatured.
Protein denaturation is the loss of tertiary or quaternary structure, causing the loss of function (3 & 4 in charge of function) Causes: high heat, alcohol, some metals & acids.
1. State the Cell Theory. Which scientists first proposed this theory (and when)?
- The idea cells are the basic unit of structure in every living thing. (Theordore Schwann & Jakob Shleiden, 1839)
- All cells come from preexisting cells (Rudolph Virchow, 1855)
2. Compare & contrast the general features of prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells, including the
information in this table:
Not sure we covered this fully….
Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells
Cell size range
Chromosome shape/ arrangement
Cell wall composition
Histones? Yes/ No
Membrane-enclosed organelles? Yes/ No
Cell division (mechanism)
3. Which domains include prokaryotic organisms? Which domain includes eukaryotic organisms?
Prokaryotic – Archaea, Bacteria Eukaryotic – Eukarya
5. Describe the structure and function of the glycocalyx (capsule) secreted by prokaryotic cells. – gelatinous material composed of polypeptides &/or polysaccharide in 2 forms : Capsule – organized & firmly attached to cell wall or Slimelayer- loose, less organized, not firmly attached to cell walls.