Week 5

MONDAY-

TUESDAY- LECTURE EXAM #2

WEDNESDAYNO CLASS!!! HAPPY 4TH!

THURSDAY- SEMESTER PROJECT DNA SUBMITTED FOR SEQUENCING

Lecture Test 2 Study Guide

1. Describe the structure & function of these structures/ organelles found in eukaryotic cells:
a. Cilia
b. Flagella
c. Glycocalyx
d. Cell wall (found in some eukaryotic cells- which ones?)
e. Plasma membrane
f. Cytoplasm
g. Nucleus
h. Nucleolus
i. Nuclear envelope
j. Centrosome
k. Ribosomes
l. Endomembrane system:
i. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
ii. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
iii. Golgi complex
iv. Lysosomes
v. Vacuoles
vi. Peroxisomes
m. Mitochondria (including cristae, matrix)
n. Chloroplasts (including thylakoids, grana, stroma)
o. Cytoskeleton/ cytoskeletal filaments

Classification & Identification of Microorganisms (Ch. 4, pp. 113-121)
Note:  This material will be reviewed during the Characterizing & Classifying Prokaryotes lecture.
1. Define taxonomy
2. Define phylogeny
3. What is the first and last name of the person who developed the binomial system for
scientific names of organisms?  What does binomial mean?
4. What is the first and last name of the person who developed the 5-kingdom taxonomy
system?  List the five kingdoms.
5. What is the first and last name of the person who developed the 3-domain taxonomy
system?  What type of research led to this person’s development of the 3-domain
system?
6. List the taxonomic categories from most general to most specific.

Microbial Nutrition & Growth (Chapter 6)
1. Define the following terms related to how organisms acquire carbon and energy:
a. Photoautotroph
b. Photoheterotroph
c. Chemoautotroph
d. Chemoheterotroph
2. Explain why the elements carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur are necessary for
microbial growth.
3. Be able to recognize examples of trace elements required for microbial growth.
4. Define the following terms related to oxygen requirements:
a. Obligate anaerobe
b. Obligate aerobe
c. Facultative anaerobe
d. Aerotolerant anaerobe
5. Explain where you would expect to find each type of organism listed above in a liquid
thioglycollate growth medium (see Fig. 6.3 in textbook).
6. Be able to recognize toxic forms of oxygen and explain why these forms of oxygen are
toxic to obligate anaerobes.
7. Define the following terms and know the optimal growth temperature for each (see Fig.
6.5 in textbook):
a. Psychrophiles
b. Mesophiles
c. Thermophiles
d. Hyperthermophiles
8. Define the following terms related to pH requirements:
a. Neutrophiles
b. Acidophiles
c. Alkalinophiles
9. Define halophile.
10. Explain how osmotic pressure affects microbes (hypotonic, hypertonic, or isotonic
environments).
11. What are biofilms?
12. What is quorum sensing?
13. Be able to label the phases of a typical microbial growth curve and explain what is
happening during each phase (see Fig. 6.21 in textbook).

Infection, Infectious Diseases, and Epidemiology (Ch. 14)
1. Be able to answer the questions on the homework assignment.

Characterizing & Classifying Prokaryotes (Ch. 11 & parts of Chapters 19-21)
1. Define the following terms and list a genus name for Archaea belonging to each group:
a. Hypertheromophile
b. Acidophile
c. Halophile
d. Methanogen
2. List the general characteristics for each phylum of bacteria discussed during lecture
3. Know the following information for each organism discussed during lecture (note: we
discussed the organisms that cause all of the outbreaks for this semester):
a. Scientific name of organism
b. Outbreak or disease caused by the organism
c. Domain, phylum, class (if given) for organism
d. Describe at least two virulence factors for the organism
e. Describe the general symptoms for the disease caused by the organism

Characterizing & Classifying Eukaryotes (Ch. 12 & parts of Chapters 22 & 23)
1. List the general characteristics of eukaryotes

  • Eukaryotic Cells
  • Multiple linear chromosomes w/ histone proteins (Structural & help DNA maintain shape)
  • Haploid vs. diploid cells: Haploid (1n) has 1 set of chromosomes. Diploid (2n) cells w/ 2 sets of chromosomes (such as humans)
  • Sexual or asexual reproduction
  • various nutrition modes.

2. List the general characteristics of protozoa

  • Unicellular, w/o cell walls
  • found in wet or moist environments
  • most are chemoheterotrophic
  • many motile
  • 2 forms: Trophozoite –  vegetative form or Cyst – resting cell, dormant.
  • Lifecycle/reproduction: asexually by fission, budding , schizogony (splits into multicells) or some are sexual

3. Know the following information about the protozoa covered during lecture (Plasmodium
vivax, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei):

Plasmodium vivax – 

  •  MALARIA (chronic form)
  • tropical areas (endemic in many countries)
  • Vector = Anopheles mosquito (difinitive host)
  • Humans are intermediate host.
  • Belongs to Alveolates catergory (apicomplexa)
  • Symptoms: chills, fever, general immune response.

Ex. credit: People with certain genetic traits are resistant, people who are heterozygous (Nn) for sickle cell are resistant to Malaria

Trypanosoma cruzi –

  • Chaga’s Disease
  • vector= kissing bug feces which we scratch into the bite site. DEFINITIVE HOST?
  • reservoir = armadillos and other mammals
  • Belongs to Euglenozoa catergory, have flagella which creates fin-like structure.

Trypanosoma brucei

  • African sleeping sickness
  • vector = tsetse fly
  • Belongs to Euglenozoa catergory, have flagella which creates fin-like structure.

a. What diseases does this organism cause?
b. In what parts of the world are these diseases most common?
c. How is the organism transmitted to humans (including vector, is applicable)?
d. What are the reservoirs for this organism?
e. What are the main symptoms of the diseases caused by this organism?
4. List the general characteristics of tapeworms and flukes (Platyhelminthes).

General characteristics of Animalia

  • Multicellular eukaryotes
  • Cells do not have cell walls
  • chemoheterotrophs
  • parasitic worms & vectors 

Helminths Characteristics

  • May have underdeveloped nervous system or digestive system
  • complex life cycles
  • may be monoecious or dioecious

5. Explain the life cycle of a typical tapeworm.  Include information about hosts (reservoirs),
transmission to humans, and portal of entry for the human body.

  1. Ingestion of eggs directly from water or of cysts within muscle tissues of raw meats.
  2. Eggs develop into adult worm in intestines (found on proglottides)
  3. Scolex helps adhere to intestines
  4. defecate eggs which then can infect others.
  5. intermediate host can be any animal
  6. definitive host is humans.

6. Define the terms definitive host and secondary host and identify them in a tapeworm’s life
cycle.   Tapeworm’s class name – Cestodes

Definitive host – the host in which the adult, sexually mature, or trophozoite lives.

Secondary or Intermediary host – (can be more than 1) host in which the larval or cyst resides.
7. Be able to recognize the diseases or conditions caused by tapeworm infections in
humans that were covered during lecture.
8. Explain the life cycle of a typical fluke.  Include information about hosts (reservoirs),
transmission to humans, and portal of entry for the human body.

  1. Enter lungs (usually from drinking water or infected water animal eaten)
  2. hermaphroditic adult fluke releases eggs in lungs
  3. metacercaria – larval stage of fluke
  4. humans are definitive host
  5. hermaphroditic worms (male/female reproduction systems)
  6. human defecates in water, eggs released
  7. eggs develop into another larval from of fluke worm
  8. water snail is intermediate host.

human eats crayfish→eggs get in lungs→human poops in water→snail eats eggs→redia → cercaria→crayfish eats snail (& repeats)

9. Be able to identify the definitive host and secondary host in a fluke’s life cycle. Host is humans, secondary host is snail or crayfish. Fluke – class name= Trematodes
10. Be able to recognize the human diseases or conditions caused by fluke infections that
were covered during lecture (fascioliasis and shistosomiasis). ?
11. List the general characteristics of roundworms (Nematoda).

12. Explain the life cycle of a typical roundworm.  Include information about hosts
(reservoirs), transmission to humans, and portal of entry for the human body.

Pinworm:

human ingests eggs from soil contaminated with animal poop→eggs develop into worms in intestine→female worm deposits eggs around anus.

(No intermediary host)
13. Be able to identify the definitive host and secondary host in a roundworm’s life cycle.
14. Be able to recognize the human diseases or conditions caused by roundworm infections
that were covered during lecture (onchocerciasis and ascariasis).

Onchocerciasis – caused by Onchocerca volvulus

  • common in sub-sahara Africa 
  • causes “River blindness” – human immune systems reaction to bacteria living inside the cells of O. volvulus causes blindness.
  • vector – black fly bites.

15. List the general characteristics of fungi.
16. Define mycosis. fungal infection of animals such as humans that generally starts in the lungs from inhalation of spores or colonization on skin.
17. Know the general anatomy of a fleshy fungus including the thallus, hyphae, mycelium,
and spore types & names. thallus – whole body of fleshy fungi;  hyphae – individual root like structures underground of fleshy fungi; Mycelium – mass of hyphae
18. Define the following terms:
a. Haustoria -Specialized Hyphae – Invade other organisms such as animals (or nematodes) & absorb nutrients from their cells (suck their guts out) – Parasitic hyphae
b. Micorhizzae – Specialized Hyphae – Form symbiotic relationships w/ plants, help to supply plants with nutrients
c. Plasmogamy – Sexual term – haploid (single set of chromosomes) nucleus of a donor cell (+) enters cytoplasm of a recipient cell (-)
d. Karyogamy – Sexual term – nucleus of (+) cell fuses w/ nucleus of (-) cell forming a diploid nucleus.
e. Meiosis – Sexual Term – Nuclear division in which a diploid nucleus becomes haploid
19. Be able to recognize the fungal toxins discussed during lecture (muscimol, penicillin,
ergotamine, lyserfic acid diethylamine, psilocybin, and aflatoxins).

Aflatoxins – fungal toxins found in foods that grow in the ground or near.  ( ex. peanut)

Black molds – produce toxins in shower or moist environments that can cause severe reactions in some people.

Amanita muscaria- produces psychoactive toxin called muscimal

Penicillium chrysogenum – produces antiobiotics penicillin (Fleming)

Claviceps purpurae – causes lysergic acid-diethylamine (LSD)

20. Know the general symptoms and fungus that causes the following mycoses:
a. Systemic mycoses- histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis –

Systematic mycosis – inside the body

Histoplasmosis – Histoplasma capsulatum

  • Respiratory disease
  • spread by bird & bat poop
  • fungus

Coccidioides immitisSan Joaquin Valley Fever

  • FUngus
  • spread through dust & soil

b. Cutaneous mycoses- tinea (tinea capitis, tinea pedis)

tinea capitis – ring worm

tinea pedis – athletes feet

c. Opportunistic mycoses- candidiasis, pneumocystis pneumonia, aspirgillosis
    Candidiasis (Thrush or yeast infection)  – Candida albicans

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